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Some Physical, Chemical and Biological Wastewater Treatment Methods
The purpose of wastewater sewage & effluent treatment is generally to remove from the wastewater enough solids to permit the remainder to be discharged to receiving water without interfering with its best or proper use. The solids which are removed are primarily organic but may also include inorganic solids. Sewage Water & Effluent Water Treatment must also be provided for the solids and liquids which are removed as sludge. Finally, treatment to control odors, to retard biological activity, or destroy pathogenic organisms may also be needed in stp plant & etp plant
While the devices used in wastewater treatment are numerous and will probably combine physical, chemical and biological methods, they may all be generally grouped under six methods:
Degrees of treatment are sometimes indicated by use of the terms primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Tertiary treatment, properly, would be any treatment added onto or following secondary treatment.
At most plants preliminary treatment is used to protect pumping equipment and facilitate subsequent treatment processes. Preliminary devices are designed to remove or cut up the larger suspended and floating solids, to remove the heavy inorganic solids, and to remove excessive amounts of oils or greases.
To effect the objectives of preliminary treatment, the following devices are commonly used:
In addition to the above, chlorination may be used in preliminary treatment. Since chlorination may be used at all stages in treatment, it is considered to be a method by itself. Preliminary treatment devices require careful design and operation.
Variations in design, operation, and application, settling tanks can be divided into four general groups:
When chemicals are used, other auxiliary units are employed. These are:
In secondary treatment may be divided into four groups:
This is accomplished by a combination of two or more of the following methods:
Though specific limitations have not been established, individual package units have, in general, been small installations serving a limited population.
Package units have been adapted to practically all the treatment devices, either singly or in various combinations that have been mentioned.
Tertiary and Advanced Wastewater Treatment
Tertiary treatment has been used to describe processes which remove plant nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous, from wastewater.
Improvement and upgrading of wastewater treatment units as well as the need to minimize environmental effects has led to the increased use of tertiary treatment.
A term that is also sometimes used to indicate treatment of a wastewater by methods other than primary or biological (secondary) treatment is advanced treatment. This degree of treatment is usually achieved by chemical (for example coagulation) methods as well as physical methods (flocculation, settling and activated carbon adsorption) to produce a high quality effluent water.
What this means for you
Reduce, Recycle, Reuse